Mohammed El-Agati, Mina Samir Gabi, Omar Samir Khalaf, Shimaa El-Sharkawy, Yasmin Ayman.

The book consists of five-chapters, published by the Arab Forum for Alternatives in 2019. After nearly nine years of Arab mobility, attempting to analyze the five political development crises (identity crisis, participation crisis, distribution crisis, penetration crisis, and crisis of legitimacy) and its impact on The Arab Spring affected by it, because the Arab Spring has raised questions related to these crises in different formats.

The first chapter written by Mohammed Al-Agati deals with the crisis of identity as a complex concept, which consists of the interaction of social, political, economic and cultural factors. Multi-level and evolving identity the more it is simplified or fixed, the more common elements between different parties within a society are lost. Only to accept but even understand each other within the same society, which necessarily applies to the relationship between one community and other societies.

In the second chapter of the writer Mina Samir, talks about crises of penetration and integration discusses the ability of the state to reach its parties, and the absence of the features of the state and its policies on those parties. Which impedes the implementation of planned policies, the inability of the government to reach the minimum level in the administrative organization and touching daily life. The absence of the state concept as an overarching framework for ethnic, racial and religious diversity within it is, therefore, a reason to reinforce primary affiliations.

The third chapter of the writer Omar Samir deals with the crisis of legitimacy: which becomes more urgent in the context of post-revolution, where the question of the extent of acceptance of the political system and the belief of citizens that the pattern in the distribution of political roles is the pattern that deserves loyalty? The chapter also deals with issues related to the crisis of legitimacy such as conflict of legitimacy such as revolutionary legitimacy or constitutional legitimacy? The legitimacy of political institutions or the legitimacy of personal achievements? The legitimacy of institutions and their relationship to the legitimacy of protest and the distribution of power in society.

In the fourth chapter, writer Shimaa El Sharkawy discusses the distribution crisis as part of the crises of political development. The paper reviews the relationship of the structure of the Arab state to the distribution crises, and adopts neoliberal policies and their role in creating distribution crises along with the role of international institutions in this. The chapter concludes that the structure of the Arab state has a clear role in the creation of distribution crises due to the nature of the emergence of the state based on political and tribal adaptations as well as metadata both in the creation of social classes or in policy-making and decisions.

The fifth chapter written by Yasmine Ayman crisis of participation, which can reflect the effects of all previous crises, and discusses how the concept of political participation crystallized over time. The different forms of political participation between negative and positive participation, and independent participation and organization and situational according to another division, and through that division moves Another point is to present the rates of political participation in the parliamentary elections in four Arab countries, trying to explain those ratios, factors that would affect political participation in the Arab region.

Full Arabic version of the Book is available at Dar Al Maraya for Cultural Production, 23 Abdel Khaliq Tharwat Street, Downtown, Cairo, and at Arab Forum for Alternatives office in Beirut, West house 3 Building, Jane Darc, Hamra St., Beirut, Lebanon. For an Arabic synopsis:

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